# ICSOFT 2009 Abstracts

## Area 1 - Enterprise Software Technology

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 9
Title:

### Identification of Software System Components Using Semantic Models and Graph Slicing

Authors:

#### Jacob Slonim, Mark Mckenna, Michael McAllister McAllister and Kelly Lyons

Abstract: We present an implementation of part of a process for automatically decomposing a legacy software system into a loosely coupled components. The Relationship Modelling Framework (RMF) coupled with the appropriate components can generate and maintain a semantic model of a software system that shows at various levels of abstraction the elements that make up a software system such as source code entities, database tables, and the relationships between these elements. We introduce graph slicing, derived from program slicing, that can assist architects by identifying dependencies of selected elements. IBM provided independent preliminary validation of the model generation process' performance and the accuracy of the graph slicing by applying the results to one of their real-world software suites.

Paper Nr: 105
Title:

### A Service Differentiation Algorithm For Clusters of Middleware Appliances

Authors:

#### Yannis Viniotis, Adolfo Rodriguez, Mursalin Habib and Bob Callaway

Abstract: Service oriented architectures (SOA) and XML-based Web Services have become the technology of choice in enterprise networks. These networks support multiple services and are typically architected in multiple computing tiers, with a main service tier for the business logic and a separate, offload" tier, for, say, the CPU-intensive XML processing. The offload tier is typically populated by clusters of middleware appliances, usually hardware-assisted devices that are optimized for their tasks. Service differentiation refers to the generic problem of managing the enterprise network resources in order to achieve desired performance objectives on a per service basis. In this paper, we define a SAA/SDA (Service Activation Algorithm/Service Deactivation Algorithm) that manages the CPU allocation in the appliance tier, in order to provide service differentiation. The main design objective of SAA/SDA is to overcome the disadvantages of the present known, static solutions. We analyze the performance of SAA/SDA via simulations.

Paper Nr: 133
Title:

### AN EXPERIENCE IN APPLYING MODEL-DRIVEN ENGINEERING FOR AN ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Authors:

#### Rodrigo Garcia-Carmona, Félix Cuadrado, Juan C. Dueñas and José Luis Ruiz

Abstract: The development of an enterprise management system is a very complex process. It must be able to efficiently manage the heterogeneity and complexity of the enterprise infrastructure and services. This situation is resolved by adopting a generic information model and reasoning over it. Moreover, the system must support non-functional requirements, such as scalability or reliability. In this domain, these requirements have matured into a cumbersome enterprise framework ecosystem, imposing a steep learning curve to the development team. This paper presents a case study that tries to address these concerns. We have applied MDE (Model-Driven Engineering) techniques and tools in order to reduce the coding effort and partially abstract from the complexity. We detail here the decisions behind the followed process, and provide a complete report on our experience, discussing the strong points and the limitations found in both our approach and the supporting tools.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 19
Title:

### Towards Unified Service Hosting

Authors:

#### Josef Spillner, Iris Braun and Alexander Schill

Abstract: Service-oriented computing is increasingly assuming an important role in the research on distributed systems and software engineering. It has also reached application and service hosters by now who need to be able to host off-the-shelf services as well as custom services. Thus, they are faced with a variety of service descriptions, service package formats and runtime demands. Each service technology usually requires a separate execution platform which eventually leads to a high complexity for the administration and management of services. Similar to the unification of invocation of web services through protocol adapters, it is clearly needed to unify management aspects like monitoring and adaptation of services. We therefore propose an abstraction, a formalisation and a unification layer for hosting environments with the intent to pave the way for technology-agnostic, unified service hosting.

Paper Nr: 95
Title:

### USER SATISFACTION WITH SEARCH-DRIVEN ENTERPRISE PORTALS

Authors:

#### Erik Stensrud and Ingunn Myrtveit

Abstract: Advances in new information technology have considerably changed the end user computer environment. Therefore, it is appropriate to revalidate existing user satisfaction measurement instruments. Doll and Torkzadeh (1988) developed an instrument that measured end user satisfaction with now 20-year old information systems and which has been widely cited and used. This pilot study revalidates their measurement instrument on a state-of-the-art, search-driven enterprise portal.

Paper Nr: 104
Title:

### MODEL DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT OF CONTEXT-AWARE MOBILE APPLICATIONS:an Architecture and a Metamodel

Authors:

#### Mohamed Mohsen Gammoudi, Slimane Hammoudi, Olivier Camp and Saber Lajili

Abstract: The development of context-aware application has been the subject of many research works in ubiquitous computing. Nowadays, there is a lack of generic approaches for formalizing the activity of development for this type of applications, and consequently this activity is very cumbersome and time consuming. This work proposes to use Model Driven Development to promote reuse adaptability and interoperability in the development of context-aware applications. Through the separation of concerns in individual models and transformation techniques, context can be modeled and adapted independently of business logic and platform details. This paper presents an architecture and a metamodel for model driven development of context-aware applications. The architecture illustrates the different steps and techniques involved in the process of development. The metamodel provides a formal representation of contextual information.

Paper Nr: 131
Title:

### A Framework for testing SOA Applications

Authors:

#### Samia Oussena, Samia Oussena and Balbir Barn

Abstract: Test driven development (TDD) is emerging as one of the most successful developer productivity aids. A key feature of TDD is the construction of a robust test harness before implementing code, enabling the creation of a “virtual contract”. The semantics of that contract are the fully enumerated set of test conditions for the system under construction. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) raises a particular challenge in that there exists no unified method for testing an SOA application, which not only looks at individual artefact of the SOA application but also the complete application. Further, in SOA, the flexibility and connectivity provided by loosely coupled services increases both the opportunity for errors and the complexity of the testing. Given this situation, this paper describes a unified test-driven approach to a ground-up implementation of an SOA application where testing is seen as central to the development process. The paper proposes a framework that focuses on process-, configuration-, and service-oriented testing that provides relatively complete and flexible viewpoints of an SOA artefact’s health. A critical evaluation of our approach is presented in the context of the development of SOA applications that support core Higher Education business processe

Paper Nr: 137
Title:

Authors:

#### Marta Cimitile and Fabrizio M. Maggi

Abstract: The ever greater pressure of competition to which enterprises are subjected has made the process continuous improvement a crucial issue today. For this reason it should be useful to compose the business processes reusing previously modeled business process parts characterizing them according to the current market needs. This work presents an approach based on the use of Business Process Lines (BPL) to compose and characterize a business process according to different contexts reusing existing process parts. The approach has been applied to realize a BPL for the Software extraordinary maintenance. This BPL can be used to model different process variants of the Software extraordinary maintenance processes corresponding to different context profiles. The results demonstrate the approach applicability in a real case and underline that it allows to reuse and specialize the same process parts for many different contexts.

Paper Nr: 13
Title:

### SLA-Driven Service Marketplace Monitoring with Grand SLAM

Authors:

#### Josef Spillner, Josef Spillner and Jan Hoyer

Abstract: Today, the number of functional equivalent web services increases rapidly. Service search engines and marketplaces are opening up to guide users to their preferred service providers. The question of what is the best service for the user’s demand cannot be answered sufﬁciently. While semantic matchmaking techniques attempt to solve this question mainly for functional aspects, it is also important to know non-functional properties of a service like its availability and response time as well as the provider’s level of fulﬁlment of contractual obligations regarding these properties. To realise the automated monitoring of services and contracts on service marketplaces, we introduce a standalone and easily integratable software component which is able to monitor non-functional properties and the adherence to negotiated contracts.

Paper Nr: 160
Title:

### INTEGRATION OF GIS COMPONENTS IN URBAN MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS

Authors:

#### Liliana Dobrica, Traian Ionescu and Sofia Elena Colesca

Abstract: This article describes the main functionality that can be included in GIS-based subsystems to be integrated in urban management applications. Our contribution is the description for the first time at the conceptual level of several GIS –based components identified in existent implemented solutions to various problems required by the needs of integrated urban management and increased urban quality of life. Analysis of these solutions provides a considerable potential to reduce GIS-based subsystems development difficulties since it makes possible for less experienced software architects and analysts to reuse knowledge that has been tested and validated previously

## Area 2 - Software Engineering

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 70
Title:

### MOBILE COMMUNICATORS FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

Authors:

#### Miguel A. Laguna and Bruno Gonzalez-baixauli

Abstract: Software product lines are a proven development paradigm in industrial environments. However, its application in small organizations is not easy. Our approach uses the package merge mechanism of the UML 2 meta-model as representation of the variability in the product line. The structure of the variability models is directly reflected in the relationships between packages in the architectural models, so that the traceability of configuration decisions is straightforward. A similar strategy is applied at the implementation level, using packages of partial classes. The combination of these techniques and the conventional IDE tools make the developments of product lines in small organizations easier as it removes the need for specialized tools and personnel. This article reports a successful experience with a communicator product line case study, representative of the mobile systems domain. People with certain communication problems can use these systems as a low-cost help in their everyday life. As problems vary from a person to another, a communicator product line is the indicated solution, allowing the adequate personalization of the final application to the disability of each concrete person

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

### A formula driven incremental construction of web service compositions

Authors:

#### Antonella Santone, Maria L. Villani and Gigliola Vaglini

Abstract: We present a modular approach to system specification to support the realisation of web services. In particular, we solve the following problem: given the formal specification of the (incomplete) system, say it $p$, already built, what is a characterisation of the sub-systems that can collaborate with $p$, through a given communication interface $\cL$, so that the complete system satisfies a given property $\varphi$? An automatic procedure is defined to identify a formula $\psi$ such that, for each process $q$ satisfying $\psi$, the parallel composition of $p$ and $q$ through $\cL$ satisfies $\varphi$. For applicability of the method to web service compositions the resulting formula $\psi$ should specify, as much as possible, only the missing piece of $p$ with respect to $\varphi$, that is, just the actions in $\varphi$ that $p$ is not able to perform and the communication actions needed for full execution of the complete system.

Paper Nr: 74
Title:

### SOFTWARE PRODUCT LINE TESTING - A systematic review

Authors:

#### Beatriz Perez, Macario Polo and Mario Piattini

Abstract: Software product lines constitute a new paradigm where industrial production techniques are adapted and applied to software development. Reuse and the maintenance of traceability between the different artefacts in the line are fundamental requirements in this paradigm, articulating the best practices for software development in an environment that is perfectly controlled by software engineering methods. This article presents a systematic review of the literature which deals with testing in software product lines. The objective is to analyse the existing approaches to testing in software product lines, discussing the significant issues related to this area of knowledge and providing an up-to-date state of the art which can serve as a basis for innovative research activities. The paper also analyses how SPL research can contribute and dynamise the research in software testing.

Paper Nr: 79
Title:

### EVALUATING A FRAMEWORK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF EVOLVING APPLICATIONS AS A SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE TOOL

Authors:

#### Georgios Voulalas and Georgios Evangelidis

Abstract: In our previous research we have presented a framework for the development and deployment of web-based applications. The framework enables the operation of multiple applications within a single installation and supports runtime evolution by dynamically recompiling classes based on the source code that is retrieved from the database. The feasibility of our solution has been successfully verified with the use of an architectural prototype. Given the importance of the maintenance activities in the software lifecycle, in this paper we are going to evaluate our framework as a software maintenance tool and position it in the domain of software evolution with a use of a related taxonomy.

Paper Nr: 91
Title:

### Reverse Generic -- Parametrization After The Fact

Authors:

#### Alexandre Bergel and Lorenzo Bettini

Abstract: By abstracting over types, generic programming enables one to write code that is independent from speciﬁc data type implementation. This style is supported by most mainstream languages, including C++ with tem- plates and Java with generics. If some code is not designed in a generic way from the start, a major effort is required to convert this code to use generic types. This conversion is manually realized which is known to be tedious and error-prone. We propose Reverse Generics, a general linguistic mechanism to deﬁne a generic class from a non-generic class. For a given set of types, a generic is formed by unbinding static references contained in these types. This generalization and generic type instantiation may be incremental. This paper studies the possible application of this linguistic mechanism to C++ and Java and, in particular, it reviews limitations of Java generics against our proposal.

Paper Nr: 152
Title:

### MODELING THE EVOLUTION OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING TRENDS: A BOTTOM UP APPROACH

Authors:

#### Ben R. Latifa

Abstract: Many decision-makers in industry, government and academia routinely make decisions whose outcome depends on the evolution of software technology trends. Even though the stakes of these decisions are usually very high, decision makers routinely depend on expert opinions and qualitative assessments to model the evolution of software technology. In this paper, we report on our ongoing work to build quantitative models of the evolution of software technology trends. In particular, we discuss how we took three trend-dependent evolutionary models and merged them into a single (trend-independent) model.

Paper Nr: 161
Title:

### A Query Language for Service Discovery

Authors:

#### Andrea Zisman, George Spanoudakis and James Dooley

Abstract: To support the discovery of services during development and execution time of service-based systems, it is necessary to have ways of expressing the characteristics of the services to be discovered and the applications that will use them. In this paper, we present SerDiQueL, an XML-based query language that allows for the description of service discovery queries expressing structural, behavioural, quality, and contextual characteristics of services to be discovered. The language supports the identification of services during both development and execution of service-based systems and is supported by prototyped query processors performing similarity analysis between services and queries.

Paper Nr: 166
Title:

### TRACEABILITY MECHANISM FOR ERROR LOCALIZATION IN MODEL TRANSFORMATION

Authors:

#### Vincent Aranega, Jean-Marie Mottu, Anne Etien and Jean-Luc Dekeyser

Abstract: Model Driven Engineering (MDE) introduces the model paradigm as the basis of system design. It increases reusability in the development of complex systems. Nevertheless, with this new paradigm, traditional issues such as system debugging or system evolution management have to be performed in a different way. Existing techniques require to be adapted. We have shown the feasibility of traceability to solve these issues. However, system debugging can only be undertaken if the developer trusts the compiler. In MDE, the compiler is a transformation chain. It is hence important to test the transformations and possibly to debug them. In this paper, we demonstrate that our traceability mechanism coupled to our error localization algorithm eases the transformation test. Indeed, it highlights the succession of rule that leads to a faulty output element. This approach is illustrated in the context of embedded system development.

Paper Nr: 189
Title:

### Defining a Metamodel for Architectural Style Quality Evaluation and Selection for MDA-based Software Architecture Integration Process at the PIM level

Authors:

Abstract: Today, many architectural styles have been proposed and many others are being defined. An architectural style provides a domain-specific design vocabulary and a set of constraints on how that vocabulary is used. Given the increasing complexity of architectural styles, designing a sound and appropriate architectural style becomes an important and intellectually challenging task. In order to analyze architectural styles quality factors at architecture level and meta level are needed. In this article we propose a metamodel for quality evaluation and selection of architectural style. Our metamodel includes a set of metaclasses; these metaclasses are constrained with formal OCL rules. These constraints allow us to improve the verification of the properties’ quality of the architectures by modelling styles of the software system. With this metamodel, all the properties’ quality of the final production are granted by the software architecture.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 16
Title:

### XIPE - An XML Integrated Processing Environment

Authors:

#### Zhen H. Liu and Anguel Novoselsky

Abstract: As XML becomes a common flexible data model for data exchange and representation, more and more adoptions of “XML-only” application design paradigm start to appear. This pure XML based approach views XML as a logical data model and uses the high-level XML declarative and imperative programming languages, such as XQuery, XQuery scripting extension, XQuery Update Facility, XQuery Full Text, XPath, XSLT, as the primary languages for application development. The “XML only” paradigm has its merits because it promotes the opportunities of global cross-tier optimisations and eliminates the impedance mismatches between different data models and different programming language styles that exist in the alternative “multi-language” approach. In this paper, we present a “pure” XML Integrated Processing Environment (XIPE) built around an XML Virtual Machine (XVM) and XML Data Repository (XDR). We present the XIPE key components - XCompiler, XVM, XQDOM, XML Tree Index, … etc, that are needed to build such a programming environment. We also show the design rationale and principles we apply to build each one of the components. The goal is to make the XIPE itself open, flexible and scalable. In order to achieve that, we use an interface-based component interaction model and use the so called “light” and “heavy” data repositories, which helps XIPE to scale seamlessly with different sizes, shapes and characteristics of the underlying XML.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

### General Spanning Trees and Reachability Query Evaluation

Authors:

#### Yangjun Chen

Abstract: Graph reachability is fundamental to a wide range of applications, including CAD/CAM, CASE, office systems, software management, as well as geographical navigation and internet routing. Many applications involve huge graphs and requires fast answering of reachability queries. Several reachability labeling methods have been proposed for this purpose. They assign labels to the nodes, such that the reachability between any two nodes can be determined using their labels only. In this paper, we propose a new data structure, called a general spanning tree of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) to minimize label space. Different from a traditional spanning tree, an edge in a general spanning tree T of a DAG G may corresponds to a path in G. That is, for each edge u Æ v in T, we have a path from u to v in G. An algorithm is discussed to find such a tree with the least number of leaf nodes in O(bn) time, where n is the number of the nodes of G, and b is the number of the leaf nodes of T. It can be proven that b equals G’s width, defined to be the size of a largest node subset U of G such that for every pair of nodes u, v Œ U, there does not exist a path from u to v or from v to u. Based on T, we are able to reduce the label space to O(bn) with O(logb) reachability query time. Our method can also be extended for graphs containing cycles.

Paper Nr: 22
Title:

### Resolving Traceability Issues of Product Derivation for Software Product Lines

Authors:

Abstract: Dealing with traceability management issues during model based product derivation in large complex in-dustrial SPL is error prone due to the lack of tool sup-port. As a result traceability management between con-nected models emerges as an important research topic. In this position paper, we discuss research challenges as scenarios from developed example product line and give recommendations on resolving traceability issues during product derivation. We also discuss initial ideas about our proposed approach for resolving traceabil-ity issues for efficient change management. It is fore-seen that the proposed traceability management rec-ommendations will help to understand the traceability issues during product derivation and as a result of implementing them will help us to get a bit closer to our ultimate goal of, 1) efficiently automate the prod-uct derivation, 2) reduce the production cost, 3) im-prove productivity and 4) improve change manage-ment in SPL.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

### Detecting Regulatory Vulnerability iin Functional Requirements Specifications

Authors:

#### Satoshi Hattori, Motoshi Saeki, Satoshi Hattori and Haruhiko Kaiya

Abstract: This paper proposes a technique to apply model checking in order to show the regulatory compliance of requirements specifications written in use case models. We define three levels of regulatory vulnerability of a requirements specification by the situation of its non-compliance with regulations. For automatic compliance checking, the behavior of business processes and information systems are specified with use cases and they are translated into finite state transition machines. By using model checker SMV, we formally verify if the regulations that are represented with computational tree logic can be satisfied with the state machines.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

### PROJECT MANAGEMENT PATTERNS TO PREVENT SCHEDULE DELAY CAUSED BY REQUIREMENTS CHANGES

Authors:

#### Shouzo Hori, Naoyasu Ubayashi, Takako Nakatani, Masaaki Hashimoto and Keiichi Katamine

Abstract: We propose PM (Project Management) patterns in order to prevent schedule delays caused by requirements changes on empirical studies. Changes or late elicitation of requirements during the design, coding and test processes are one of the most serious risks, which may delay the project schedules. However, changes and late elicitation of requirements are sometimes inevitably accepted during the development processes. Therefore, the PM method for preventing schedule delays caused by changes and late elicitation of requirements during the development processes should be studied. In this study, we examined the actual conditions of a project. The project succeeded in preventing schedule delays, though it did accept changes and late elicitation of requirements during the development processes. As a result, we were able to extract various typical PM techniques for preventing schedule delays caused by requirements elicitation. The techniques were also applied to other projects. Thus, we call them “PM patterns”. Moreover, we’ve arranged the patterns on a two-dimensional framework. The first dimension is a set of nine knowledge areas of PM such as scope, time and cost management. The second dimension is a group of PM processes such as planning, executing and controlling processes. We also break down the project goal, in this case, the redevelopment of systems for future modifiability, into issues such as keeping lead time and educating engineers, and arrange them on the framework. Then, we discuss the relationship between the project goal and PM patterns on the framework.

Paper Nr: 38
Title:

### Preparing for Product Derivation: Activities and Issues

Authors:

#### Padraig O'Leary, Fergal M. Caffery, Ita Richardson and Steffen Thiel

Abstract: Software product lines (SPL) advocates the development of applications by reusing shared software assets across a set of related products. Current approaches to the derivation of products from a product line focuses on handling the commonalities and variabilities of the shared software assets. These approaches have failed to consider the early phases of product derivation. In this paper we report on how we compared both industrial and academic approaches to the establishment of a product derivation project. Based on this research and our experiences, we have identified key activities and important issues that should be considered when establishing a product derivation project.

Paper Nr: 44
Title:

### GENERIC WEB SERVICES - EXTENDING SERVICE SCOPE WHILE PRESERVING BACKWARDS COMPATIBILITY

Authors:

#### Vadym Borovskiy, Oleksandr Panchenko, Jürgen Müller and Alexander Zeier

Abstract: In this article the challenge of extending the functionality of a Web service while guaranteeing backwards compatibility with old client applications is addressed. The authors contribute with a new interface design technique called ”Generic Web Services”. Using the technique service providers can extend the scope of Web services without breaking compatibility with existing clients. The goal is achieved by applying signature relaxation and interface balancing techniques to a current Web service interface. Furthermore, the authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of genericWeb services and give an example that applies the aforementioned techniques to a Web service from SAP Enterprise Services Workplace.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

### MODEL TRANSFORMATION USING ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS

Authors:

#### Gareth Howells, David Akehurst and Behzad Bordbar

Abstract: The key research focus of this paper is the combination of advantages from rule based and adaptive systems to produce a hybrid technique that is better able to handle transformations than either technique in its own right. The target problem for the techniques we are developing of reverse engineering is a significant problem when dealing with legacy systems but has great advantages over the significant costs of maintaining or reengineering the old code. The significant novelty of the system is the application of adaptive systems to the problem, these serve to reduce the complexity and quantities inherent in defining transformations rules for each individual case. Current reverse engineering approaches fail due to the difficulties of writing rules to recognize every possible pattern of code that maps to the higher level model.

Paper Nr: 56
Title:

### Prioritization of Software Process Improvements -- A COQUALMO-based Case Study and Derived Decision Support Scheme

Authors:

#### Arne Beckhaus, Lars M. Karg, Christian A. Graf, Michael Grottke and Dirk Neumann

Abstract: Quality Assurance has always been a major concern of software engineering. While a lot of work has been contributed to technical quality assurance aspects, its economics have rarely been addressed. This is remarkable due to the current endeavor of the software industry to learn from more mature industries and to adapt their 'lean' and process improvement philosophies. We advance this debate by proposing a decision support scheme. It facilitates in selecting and prioritizing quality assurance activities for improvement initiatives. The prioritization order is given by the expected quality gains in terms of reduced defect costs in the software product. Our scheme supports managers in their decision process, as shown in three industry cases. It can be instantiated with low data-gathering efforts due to relying on calibration data and model characteristics of COQUALMO.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

### Towards a Strategic Requirements Elicitation ~A proposal of the PRINCE Model~

Authors:

#### Michio Tsuda, Takako Nakatani, Michio Tsuda, Keiichi Katamine, Masaaki Hashimoto, Mari Inoki and Shouzo Hori

Abstract: Requirements changes are sometimes pointed out as being one of the causes for project failure. Our solution to cope with this problem is to plan and manage requirements changes strategically. This paper introduces the PRINCE model that consists of 3+1 types of requirements elicitation processes based on the time of the maturation of the requirements elicitation activity. To explain the model, we show a real case with quantitative observations of a requirements elicitation process. When we are able to elaborate a strategy of requirements elicitation with the PRINCE model, we can elicit requirements by need of the physical development, rather than the theoretical development process model.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

### HOMOGENIZATION OF MODELS TO SUPPORT MULTI-MODEL PROCESSES IN IMPROVEMENT ENVIRONMENTS

Authors:

#### César J. Pardo Calvache, Félix García Rubio, Mario Piattini and Francisco J. Pino

Abstract: Since almost two decades ago, process improvement has been evolving considerably. Proof of this is the increase in the amount of models (models and fact standards) that have been able to be referenced and taken as a basis on which to carry out process improvement. The heterogeneity of available models, together with the need to solve problems from many dimensions and organizational hierarchies, lead to organizations facing problems in improvement process projects which have to deal with different models at the same time. To balance these models, this paper sets out a homogenized structure as a support mechanism for the harmonization and integration of their different characteristics.

Paper Nr: 69
Title:

### QUALITY ANALYSIS OF A CROSS-DOMAIN REFERENCE ARCHITECTURE

Authors:

#### Liliana Dobrica and Eila Ovaska

Abstract: The content of this paper addresses the issue of how to perform in a systematic way quality analysis of a cross domain reference architecture using scenarios. The cross domain reference architecture is designed based on the domains requirements and features modelling and it includes domains core services and constraints on how these services should be combined. We apply a method based on scenarios to analyse modifiability at the architectural level. In order to handle complexity in analysis we propose categories of change scenarios to be derived from each problem domain. Our main concerns are core services changes in the scenarios interaction step.

Paper Nr: 87
Title:

### A SELF-ADAPTIVE ARCHITECTURE FOR AUTONOMIC SYSTEMS DEVELOPED WITH ASSL

Authors:

#### Emil Vassev, Michael G. Hinchey and Aaron Quigley

Abstract: We address the need to realize a runtime self-modifiable architecture for autonomic systems, specified and generated with the ASSL (Autonomic System Specification Language) framework. This framework generates such systems with a special hierarchical multi-granular architecture composed of singleton classes. Base ASSL is designed to support runtime evolving systems, whereas in this approach, we extend the generated architecture to allow for both code generation and code management at runtime. We provide a tailored algorithm to demonstrate how this approach can be applied to customized ASSL models specified to trigger runtime changes in the structure of the generated autonomic systems.

Paper Nr: 98
Title:

### AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF USER INTERFACE MODELS AND PROTOTYPES FROM DOMAIN AND USE CASE MODELS

Authors:

#### António M. Rosado da Cruz and João P. Faria

Abstract: The model-driven automatic generation of interactive applications has been addressed by some research projects, but only few propose the model-to-model generation of a graphical user interface (UI). Existing solutions generate only part of the interactive application and most of them require as input the full specification of a UI model. This paper proposes an iterative and incremental approach that enables the modeler to generate a form-based executable prototype from the constructed models, favouring an evolutionary construction of models starting with a domain model, proceeding with an extended domain model and finally complementing it with a use case model. The approach derives a UI model from the previously referred models and allows its execution by generating an executable description of the UI in a XML-based UI description language, together with code for the specified logic and for persisting the data entities. The generated UI description may be further refined and supplemented with style definitions in order to obtain a final UI.

Paper Nr: 100
Title:

### Aggregated Accounting of Memory Usage in Java

Authors:

#### Paul Bouché, Martin von Löwis and Peter Tröger

Abstract: Profiling of application memory consumption typically includes a trade-off between overhead and accuracy. We present a new approach for memory usage accounting which has a comparatively low overhead and still provides meaningful results. Our approach considers the structure of modern applications by introducing the notion of memory accounts where application modules get "charged" for memory allocations. We have applied this approach to Java application servers and discuss important implementation aspects as well as experimental results of our prototype.

Paper Nr: 103
Title:

### CONTINUOUS CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA QUALITY CHECKING

Authors:

#### Christian Kop

Abstract: Since a conceptual database schema is the backbone of data intensive software, the schema must be continuously checked during the requirements engineering step in order to get the proper quality. One possibility is to check if the conceptual schema of the database provides the necessary data for retrieval needs. Talking about the retrieval needs would help but SQL is too technical for that purpose. To solve this problem, this paper presents an approach which uses controlled natural language querying for checking a conceptual schema.

Paper Nr: 115
Title:

### Applying Financial Time-Series Analysis to the Dynamic Analysis of Software

Authors:

#### Philippe Dugerdil and David Sennhauser

Abstract: Dynamic analysis of programs is one of the most promising techniques to reverse-engineer legacy code for software understanding. However, the key problem is to cope with the volume of data to process, since a single execution trace could contain millions of calls. Although many trace analysis techniques have been proposed, most of them are not very scalable. To overcome this problem, we developed a segmentation technique where the trace is pre-processed to give it the shape of a time series of data. Then we apply technical analysis techniques borrowed from the financial domain. In particular we show how the moving average filtering can be used to identify the “trend” of the involvement of the class in the execution of the program. Based on the comparison of the “trends” of all the classes, one can compute the coupling of classes in order to recover the hidden functional architecture of the software.

Paper Nr: 118
Title:

### Model Driven Testing with Time augmented Markov Chain Usage Models

Authors:

#### Sebastian Siegl, Vladimir Entin, Reinhard German and Gerhard Kiffe

Abstract: In statistical testing Markov Chain Usage Models (MCUM) are employed to describe the possible usage of the System-under-test (SUT) and to automatically derive test cases. However, MCUMs, as they are applied today, do not provide a universal concept for the integration of time. The estimated or known delay time of usage states and execution time of actions can only be considered by auxiliary means. But the importance of this aspect grows continously with the integration of increasingly complex and time sensitive systems in the automotive environment, such as hybrid vehicles. To overcome this drawback we present an intuitive extension of MCUMs that allows the consistent integration of time in MCUMs. We discuss how computations for MCUMs can be easily adapted to Time Augmented MCUMs and present algorithms for automatic test case generation from Time Augmented MCUMs together with a case study that has been conducted in the automotive domain.

Paper Nr: 122
Title:

### On the Correctness of Software Architectures: Formal Specification of Correctness Properties Using Pi-AAL

Authors:

#### Flavio Oquendo

Abstract: Software has become a critical part of a rapidly growing range of products and services. Key aspects of the development of such software-intensive systems are the description and analysis of their software architecture, encompassing both the formal model of the component-based architecture and the formal specification of the correctness properties that the modeled architecture must satisfy. Therefore, an Architecture Description Language (ADL) must be complemented by an Architecture Analysis Language (AAL) enabling the specification of architecture-related correctness properties. A major challenge for an AAL is to provide adequate expressive power to specify both structural and behavioral correctness properties, and to be well-suited for machine-automated processing for verification, at a time. This paper presents how Pi-AAL complements Pi-ADL (designed in the ArchWare European Project) for enabling the specification of architectural correctness properties based on the modal Mu-calculus. The toolset and its experimentation in industrial pilot projects are outlined.

Paper Nr: 130
Title:

### Featherweight Agent Language: a core calculus for agents and artifacts

Authors:

#### Ferruccio Damiani, Mirko Viroli, Alessandro Ricci and Paola Giannini

Abstract: The widespread diffusion and availability of multicore architectures is going to make more and more aspects of concurrency and distribution to be part of mainstream programming and software engineering. The simpA framework is a recently proposed library-based extension of Java that introduces on top of the OO layer a new abstraction layer based on agent-oriented concepts. A simpA program is organized in terms of dynamic set of autonomous pro-active task-oriented entities -- the agents -- that cooperate by exploiting some artifacts, that represents resources and tools that are dynamically constructed, shared and co-used by agents. In this paper we promote the applicability of the agent and artifact metamodel in OO programming a step further. Namely, we propose a core calculus that integrates techniques coming from concurrency theory and from OO programming languages to provide a first basic formal framework for designing agent-oriented languages and studying properties of agent-oriented programs.

Paper Nr: 141
Title:

### PERSPECTIVES AND ASPECTS IN POEML . Supporting Adaptation in Learning Processes

Authors:

#### Manuel Caeiro-rodriguez, Luis Anido Rifón and Martin Llamas-Nistal

Abstract: Adaptation is a key feature of e-learning systems. The educational process performed by the support of e- learning systems should be carried out taking into account the cognitive and other particular characteristics of the students, of the teachers and of the environments. However, this adaptation is not a simple process. It implies the conjunction of technical and pedagogical issues. This paper introduces a solution to support adaptation in the context of an Educational Modeling Languages (EML). EMLs have been conceived to allow us the modeling of learning units, enabling the expression of dierent pedagogical approaches. Even- tually, these models are intended to control and support the development of the corresponding learning units.

Paper Nr: 142
Title:

### Refactoring of C/C++ Preprocessor Constructs at the Model Level

Authors:

#### László Vidács

Abstract: Preprocessor directives are usually omitted from the analysis of C/C++ software, yet they play an important role especially in program transformations. Here a method is presented for refactoring preprocessor constructs at the model level. Refactorings are carried out on program models derived from a reverse engineering process of real-life software. We present a metamodel of preprocessing on which a graph transformation approach is used to elaborate refactorings. The method is presented through the elaboration of the add parameter refactoring both at schematic and concrete level. Safe transformations are assured by visual control and validated by the evaluation of OCL expressions. The usability of the idea is validated by successful experiments.

Paper Nr: 145
Title:

### PRODUCT LINE VARIABILITY MANAGEMENT USING TRACEABILITY INFORMATION

Authors:

#### Rahila Ejaz, Naveed Ikram and Salma Imtiaz

Abstract: Variability management is an integral element of product line change management. It is a convoluted characteristic of change management which encompasses various issues. All of these issues should be managed in order to achieve effective change management. However, prerequisite of efficient change management is traceability information. Therefore an effective traceability based variability management is essential for product line change management. There are considerable researches related to traceability based variability management in software product lines. However, these approaches are issue specific and do not explicitly state the traceability information for all the core issues of variability management. This paper contributes by presenting a variability management model which is based on traceability information for all the core issues of variability management.

Paper Nr: 156
Title:

### JAAF-S: A FRAMEWORK TO IMPLEMENT AUTONOMIC AGENTS ABLE TO DEAL WITH WEB SERVICES

Authors:

#### Baldoino S. Neto, Viviane Torres da Silva, Manoel Netto, Andrew Costa and Carlos J. Pereira de Lucena

Abstract: Due to the widespread interest and deployment of web services and service-oriented architectures in industry, it is necessary to develop systems able to, at run-time, discover, reason and select services. Considering that agents present properties like reasoning, autonomy, pro-activity and self-adaptation, the multi-agent system is a paradigm that fits these concerns. Agents can be used to autonomously and pro-actively discover services, decide about the most appropriate service and adapt themselves if they face a problem while using the selected service. In this paper we focus on a framework (Java self-Adaptive Agent Framework for Service – JAAF-S) to implement self-adaptive agents able to adapt themselves while searching and using web services. The framework also provides support to three main agent-related properties: autonomy, pro-activity and reasoning. JAAF-S extends the JADE framework that already gives support to autonomy and pro-active agents, provides reasoning methods based on rules, cases and genetic algorithms as well as mechanisms to discover and select web services.

Paper Nr: 170
Title:

### TOWARDS MODEL CHECKING WITH JAVA PATHFINDER FOR AUTONOMIC SYSTEMS SPECIFIED AND GENERATED WITH ASSL

Authors:

#### Emil Vassev, Michael G. Hinchey and Aaron Quigley

Abstract: Autonomic computing has been recognized as a valid approach to the development of large-scale self-managing complex systems. The Autonomic System Specification Language (ASSL) is an initiative for the development of autonomic systems where we approach the problem of formal specification, validation, and code generation of such systems within a framework. As part of our research on ASSL, we have developed and investigated different approaches to software verification. Currently, the latter is possible via built-in consistency checking and functional testing where handling logical errors is a daunting task. In this paper, we discuss our work on model checking with NASA’s Java PathFinder tool, which is an explicit-state model checker that works directly on the generated Java code. We propose optional automatic generation of test drivers in the form of PathFinder API calls seeded in the ASSL-generated code.

Paper Nr: 175
Title:

### Concatenative Programming: An Overlooked Paradigm in Functional Programming

Authors:

#### Dominikus Herzberg and Tim Reichert

Abstract: Based on the state of our ongoing research into Language-Driven Software Development (LDSD) and Language-Oriented Programming (LOP) we argue that the yet relatively unknown paradigm of concatenative programming is valuable for fundamental software engineering research and might prove to be a suitable foundation for future programming. To be sound, we formally introduce Concat, our research prototype of a purely functional concatenative language. The simplicity of Concat is contrasted by its expressiveness and a richness of inspiring approaches. Concatenative languages contribute a fresh and different sight on functional programming, which might help tackle challenges in LDSD/LOP from a new viewpoint.

Paper Nr: 179
Title:

### Leveraging Light-Weight Formal Methods with Functional Programming Approach on Cloud

Authors:

#### Shigeru KUSAKABE, Shigeru Kusakabe, Yoichi OHMORI and Keijiro ARAKI

Abstract: We discuss the features of functional programming related to formal methods and an emerging paradigm, Cloud Computing. Formal methods are useful in developing highly reliable mission-critical software. However, in light-weight formal methods, we do not rely on very rigorous means, such as theorem proofs. Instead, we use adequately less rigorous means, such as evaluation of pre/post conditions and testing specifications, to increase confidence in our specifications. Millions of tests may be conducted in developing highly reliable mission-critical software in a light-weight formal approach. We consider an approach to leveraging light-weight formal methods by using "Cloud." Given a formal specification language which has the features of functional programming, such as referential transparency, we can expect advantages of parallel processing. One of the basic foundations of VDM specification languages is Set Theory. The pre/post conditions and proof-obligations may be expressed in terms of set expressions. We can evaluate this kind of expression in a data-parallel style by using MapReduce framework for a huge set of test cases over cloud computing environments. Thus, we expect we can greatly reduce the cost of testing specifications in light-weight formal methods.

Paper Nr: 187
Title:

### A MDA-BASED TESTING: A comparative study

Authors:

#### Arturo H. Torres Zenteno, Maria Jose Escalona, Manuel Mejias and Javier Jesus Gutierrez

Abstract: Software testing is any activity aimed at evaluating an attribute or capability of a program or system and determining that it meets its required results. Moreover, it is a critical element in order to ensure the system quality. However, researchers and practitioners are still trying to find effective ways to test Web applications. One way is related with the MDA (Model-Driven Architecture) paradigm. This paper presents a comparative study of existing proposals for this paradigm. The aim of this study is to find research opportunities to take the challenge of automating the tests in the context of meta-models MDWE (Model-Driven Web Engineering).

Paper Nr: 8
Title:

### Applicability of BET to Elusive Bugs in Diverse Application Areas

Authors:

#### William Howden, P. Desai, T. Hachisuka, B. Chen, M. Chaudhary, F. Lionetti and R. Hemmatti

Abstract: The basic principles of Bounded Exhaustive Testing (BET) are reviewed, as well as the concept of an Elusive Bug (EB). Initial work on the application of BET to EB's previously indicated that it provides a new and promising approach to this problem domain. A four-part BET/EB oriented test framework involving: fault model development, BET test generation design, failure model identification and automated oracle design is introduced. The framework provides a systematic approach to BET/EB. It was applied to three very different areas of application. The research indicated the general applicability of BET and the BET/EB framework. It illustrated how fault models can be used to put BET application bounding on a systematic basis. It also illustrated how failure models can be used to facilitate the development of automated oracles, and how they can be used, along with fault models, to systematically define the effectiveness scope of a BET testing strategy. The BET/EB paradigm was found to prompt the tester into thinking of effective new techniques, such as inverse oracles, which was not likely to occur in other automated testing methods such as random or regression testing.

Paper Nr: 10
Title:

### PARAMETERIZATION OF SAMPLES FOR MODELING OF LASER BURNING: Increasing the Lifelikeness of Synthetically Generated Samples

Authors:

#### Jana Varnuskova and Pavel Herout

Abstract: This paper describes methods for the generation of samples in modeling burning by a laser beam. In the first part, it briefly informs about real data set and the way of approximation of real samples by mathematically described smooth surfaces. In the main part, the paper focuses on methods which can be used for increasing the lifelikeness of the result of the sample generation process for simulation purposes. Finally, the results are summarized and the future plans are outlined.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

### DESIGN QUALITY OF ASPECT-ORIENTED AND OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMS An Empirical Comparison

Authors:

#### Konstantina Georgieva, Ayaz Farooq and Reiner Dumke

Abstract: The aspect-oriented programming introduces the next step in the software design approaches in the sense of overcoming the imperfections in the object-oriented paradigm by separating the cross-cutting concerns and manipulating them in a separate manner. While the use of aspect-orientation attempts to tackle some of the issues with object-oriented approach, it raises some others. How far is the design quality improved by the use of aspect-orientation over object-orientation. What are common design trends among AO programs in comparison with OO programs? A comparison among design metrics for both these kinds of programs can help find answers to these questions. We have used Chidamber & Kemerer metrics suite to empirically compare design properties of AO programs with OO programs. Results from Chidamber & Kemerer metrics for eleven AspectJ benchmark programs and those for dozens of Java libraries and programs are analyzed. The experiment reveals few interesting design trends and some limitations of the used metrics suite.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

### TRANSFORMATION OF ORGANIZATION OF SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATIONS

Authors:

#### Atsushi Ohnishi

Abstract: Specific software functional requirements can be organized with different ways, such as user class oriented organization, functional hierarchy oriented organization, stimulus oriented organization, and so on. User class oriented software requirements specification is easy to understand for each class of users’ behaviours, but difficult to understand functional hierarchy. We adopt a controlled requirements language named X-JRDL as a requirements language and propose a transformation method between two software requirements specifications organized in different ways.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

### MAPPING FEATURE DIAGRAMS TO UML MODELS: A TRANSFORMATIONAL APPROACH

Authors:

#### Miguel A. Laguna, Bruno Gonzalez-baixauli and Rubén Fernández

Abstract: Variability and commonality management is one of the key aspects in the development of software product lines. Feature models embody various different variability facets that must be mapped to UML models to trace the variability from requirements to the architecture (and implementation) of the product line. In this context, this article presents the experiences with pattern identification in feature models and their relation with the corresponding architectural UML counterparts. The work includes the definition and implementation of the meta-model based transformations between these models. Finally, an example of application of the transformations completes the article

Paper Nr: 61
Title:

### USAGE OF DESIGN BY CONTRACT - FROM COMPONENT-BASED ENGINEERING TO SOA DESIGN

Authors:

#### Boyan Bontchev and Diana Berberova

Abstract: Modern SOA research is focused more and more on fundamental service design issues such as means for creation of formal, standardised service contracts. A possible way for achieving standardised service contracts goes through application of the design by contract approach. Such an approach promises offering a lot of benefits especially when applied for description and management of quality of services. The paper tries to reveal the potential advantages of design by contract when applied for SOA design. It discusses similarities and differences between component based software engineering and SOA, as far as design by contract has been successfully used for component design. Also, it shows the importance of service contract and traces usage of design by contracts for Web service design and how it could be applied for SOA.

Paper Nr: 64
Title:

### APPLYING STATE-OF-THE-ART TECHNIQUES FOR EMBEDDED SOFTWARE ADAPTATION

Authors:

#### Suman Roychoudhury and Christian Bunse

Abstract: Embedded software systems affect critical functions of our daily lives (e.g., software used in automobiles, aircraft control systems), and represent a significant investment by government, scientific and corporate institutions. Modern research approaches for software engineering and programming language design, such as aspect-oriented software development and model-driven engineering have been investigated as effective means for improving modularization and reuse of software. However, one research trend for embedded system development has focused primarily on the underlying hardware, neglecting the need of applying advanced software engineering techniques for the several million lines of code existing in the embedded domain. In this paper, we evaluate the above mentioned state-of-the-art techniques as a viable solution for the development, analysis and evolution of embedded software systems.

Paper Nr: 76
Title:

### Model-Driven Development of Software Configuration Management Systems: A Case Study in Model-Driven Engineering

Authors:

#### Bernhard Westfechtel, Thomas Buchmann and Alexander Dotor

Abstract: Software configuration management (SCM) is the discipline of controlling the evolution of large and complex software systems. Current SCM systems are themselves large and complex. Usually, their underlying models are hard-wired into the program code, which is written manually. In contrast, we present a modular and model-driven approach to software configuration management which (a) reduces development effort by replacing coding with creating executable models and (b) provides a product line supporting the configuration of an SCM system from loosely coupled, reusable components. In addition to improving SCM support, our intent is to use our system as a large case study for evaluating languages and tools for model-driven development.

Paper Nr: 93
Title:

### Integrated Domain Modeling and Meta-Modeling

Authors:

#### Antoine Schlechter, Fernand Feltz and Guy Simon

Abstract: Despite a broad agreement on the benefits of model driven approaches to software engineering, the use of such techniques is still not very widespread. We think this is due to the appearing discouraging difficulty of meta-modeling. This paper presents a new method to easily obtain a meta-model from a traditional abstract object-oriented domain model. The approach integrates domain modeling and meta-modeling in order to take full advantage of both traditional and generative software development methods.

Paper Nr: 112
Title:

### Decoupling Configuration and Deployment Procedures by Aspect-Oriented Policies

Authors:

#### Kurt Englmeier and Ricki Koinig

Abstract: Model-driven development (MDD) has the potential to increase the level of cooperation in software design and adaptation between stakeholders from IT and business domains. Clear and understandable models can raise transparency of business-relevant key characteristics of software. Our approach addresses a domain-specific configuration language (DSCL) for the dynamic composition and adaptation of applications through configuration information. We concentrate on model representations that reflect individually tailored compositions of generic application modules and their adaptations to individual business needs. Our approach fosters the collaboration in defining application models on two different levels of abstraction. High-level model concepts focus on the definition of process aspects across modules. Low-level concepts cover the complementary role of definition and adaptation of low-level processes that are abstracted away in the high-level concepts.

Paper Nr: 129
Title:

### REACTIVE AUTONOMIC SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE MODELING AND SELF-MONITORING WITH CATEGORY THEORY

Authors:

#### Olga Ormandjieva and Stan Klasa

Abstract: The research work presented in this paper is motivated by the need to build performance self-monitoring and decision making process into the Reactive Autonomic Systems (RAS) with reactive and autonomic behaviour. In order to accomplish the RAS compliance with imposed performance policies, we formalize the RAS modelling and performance control in a single formal framework based on a representational theory of measurement and Category Theory. Category Theory is expressive enough to capture qualitative and quantitative knowledge about heterogeneous RAS requirements, their interrelations and decision-making mechanism in one formal representation, where structure and reasoning are inextricably bound together. Thus, Category Theory provides a computational mechanism whereby such knowledge can be applied to performance data and the RAS information structures to arrive at conclusions which are valid.

Paper Nr: 132
Title:

### SELF-OPTIMIZATION PROPERTY IN AUTONOMIC SPECIFICATION OF DISTRIBUTED MARF WITH ASSL

Authors:

#### Emil Vassev, Emil Vassev and Serguei Mokhov

Abstract: In this work, we venture out to develop self-optimization features in the Distributed Modular Audio Recognition Framework (DMARF). Here, we use the Autonomic System Specification Language (ASSL) to specify a self-optimization policy and generate the code for the same. This completes the first iteration of the autonomic specification layer for DMARF and enables re-engineered autonomic DMARF system, which also includes self-healing and self-protection, both developed earlier.

Paper Nr: 153
Title:

### SOCIAL PATTERNS FOR QUALITY CONTROL IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

Authors:

#### Thi-Thuy-Hang Hoang and Manuel Kolp

Abstract: Modern softwares are not only required to perform some specific functions but also have to satisfy all the quality constraints described by the initial requirements. In this paper, we focus on some useful social patterns that will facilitate the developers’ task when dealing with quality constraint in multi-agent systems. These patterns define some agents and their interactions that help to monitor and to react to any changes of quality at the runtime.

Paper Nr: 159
Title:

### RAPIDLY MODIFYING MULTIPLE USER INTERFACES OF ONE APPLICATION

Authors:

#### Alexander Behring, Andreas Petter and Max Mühlhäuser

Abstract: An increasing demand for supporting users in diverse contexts of use, e.g., depending on interaction device and primary task, results in new challenges for User Interface (UI) development. Two key challenges are: how to create these multiple UIs for one application (creation challenge), and how to consistently modify them (modification challenge). The creation challenge has been addressed in various works utilizing automatic UI generation. We present our approach (Dialogue Refinement) and its tool-support to address the modification challenge by allowing one modification to be applied to multiple UIs at once.

Paper Nr: 168
Title:

### Formalization of broadcast communication in process calculus and its model checking

Authors:

#### Ritsuya IKEDA, Takuya OHATA and Shin-ya Nishizaki

Abstract: A large number of studies have examined communicating processes in formalizing concurrent systems for unicast communications. We propose a process calculus to enable formalizing communicating processes and their computational costs to analyze denial-of-service attack resistance by estimating the cost balance between a victim and attackers. Our system is similar to other process calculi in that it is based on unicast communication. Broadcast communication is also important in the context of denial-of-service attack resistance because several denial-of-service attack methods, such as the Smurf attack, use broadcast communications. Little is known about the formal framework of broadcast communicating processes. In this paper, we formalize broadcast communication in the framework of process calculus and apply it to an analysis of denial-of-service attack resistance of communicating processes via broadcast communication. We propose an extension of the proposed process calculus and an analysis method that uses the SPIN model checker. We give two examples of broadcast communication and verify several properties using the SPIN model checker.

Paper Nr: 172
Title:

### WHAT IS AN ASPECT IN REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING?

Authors:

#### Hermann Kaindl

Abstract: Addressing the issue of crosscutting concerns within a software system, the notion of an aspect has been introduced, first for so-called Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) and then, more generally, for Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD). Unfortunately, this notion is used with two different meanings: one as a synonym for “crosscutting concern”, and the other as a means to deal with a crosscutting concern within the software. Later, this notion has been carried over to so-called Aspect-Oriented Requirements Engi¬neering (AORE). This raises questions about the meaning(s) of an aspect in this context, and about the relationship of this notion in AORE and the same notion in AOP. We try to answer these questions and argue to define an aspect as a means to deal with crosscutting concerns, and not as a synonym of “crosscutting concern”. Most importantly, an aspect in AORE is not necessarily related to an aspect within the software.

## Area 3 - Distributed Systems

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 17
Title:

### AGENT-BASED DIVISION OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS INTO DISTRICT METERED AREAS

Authors:

#### Joaquín Izquierdo, Manuel Herrera, Idel Montalvo and Rafael Pérez-García

Abstract: Water distribution systems are extremely complex assets. The complexity of these systems is continually increasing from the point of view of technical management. Most water companies do not have the necessary global vision of their production and distribution, and lack suitable tools to control and operate their systems. As a result, an increasing number of projects examining suitable methods to divide water distribution networks into district-metered areas (DMA) are in progress in many cities worldwide. Division into DMAs aims at splitting large interconnected distribution network into smaller and virtually independent networks. Division into DMAs enables action to be taken to improve the control of important aspects of water distribution, such as leaks and water quality. Due to the complexity of the problem, especially for large systems, efficient techniques are required. In this paper, we introduce a multi-agent approach that takes advantage of the distributed nature of water distribution systems. This approach has been applied to a real network with promising results.

Paper Nr: 96
Title:

Authors:

#### Bernhard Wolf, Michael Ameling, Bernhard Wolf, Thomas Springer and Alexander Schill

Abstract: Business applications such as supply chain management and enterprise relationship management use business objects (BOs) for data containers. The BOs are cached at the middle-tier since the applications are hosted on application servers within a multi-tier architecture. The applications are replicated to achieve scalability and fast local access for the clients. Therefore, replica control for the BOs is mandatory to fulfill consistency requirements. However, following the service-oriented architecture the synchronization of BOs through standardized services is time consuming and can be optimized. In this paper, a solution is presented that allows an adaptive synchronization for business objects based on profiling. A BO and system profiling enables an efficient synchronization by an appropriate configuration of the replication strategy. A cost model based on an experimental evaluation allows to find e.g., the trade-off of sending full BO copies or just delta synchronization messages. The proposed solution is evaluated by temporal consistency constraints for BOs. Finally, an initial configuration of the replication strategy and an adaption during runtime is applicable based on constantly updated profiles.

Paper Nr: 125
Title:

### On Extending the Primary-Copy Database Replication Paradigm

Authors:

#### Miguel Liroz-Gistau, José E. Armendáriz-Iñigo, Jose R. Gonzalez de Mendivil, José Ramón Juárez-Rodríguez and Francesc D. Muñoz-Escoí

Abstract: In database replication, primary-copy systems sort out easily the problem of keeping replicate data consistent by allowing only updates at the primary copy. While this kind of systems are very efficient with workloads dominated by read-only transactions, the update-everywhere approach is more suitable for heavy update loads. However, it behaves worse when dealing with workloads dominated by read-only transactions. We propose a new database replication paradigm, halfway between primary-copy and update-everywhere approaches, which permits improving system performance by adapting its configuration to the workload, by means of a deterministic database replication protocol which ensures that broadcast writesets are always going to be committed.

Paper Nr: 135
Title:

### SINBAD DIGITAL LIBRARY PRESERVATION USING IRODS DATA GRID

Authors:

#### Marco Pereira, Marco Fernands, Joaquim Arnaldo Martins and Joaquim Sousa Pinto

Abstract: Digital libraries are important instruments to make knowledge accessible to everyone. Maintaining the information stored within a digital library accessible to the public while ensuring that it remains protected from outside threats is one of the key concerns in digital libraries research. This paper describes possible ways to integrate SInBAD, the University of Aveiro digital library system with a grid based preservation system.

Paper Nr: 155
Title:

### Allocating Educational Resources Through Happiness Maximization and Traditional CSP Approach

Authors:

#### Juan Cano, Luis Sánchez, David Camacho, Estrella Pulido and Eloy Anguiano

Abstract: An instance of an Educational Resources Allocation (ERA) problem is the distribution of a set of students in different laboratories. This can be a complex and dynamic problem if non-quantitative considerations (i.e. how close the ﬁnal allocation is to the student preferences or desires) are involved in the decision process. Traditionally, different approaches based on Constraint-Satisfaction techniques and Multi-agent negotiation have been applied to the general problem of Resource Allocation. This paper shows how a Multi-agent approach can be used to model and simulate the assignment of sets of students to several predeﬁned laboratories, by using their preferences to guide the allocation process. This approach aims at ﬁnding new solutions that try to satisfy individual student needs with no knowledge about the general allocation problem. The paper shows some experimental results and a comparison, between a CSP-based solution modeled in CHOCO, a CSP Java-based library, and a Multi-agent model implemented using MASON, a multi-agent simulation platform.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 31
Title:

### MAPPING PARALLEL PROGRAMS INTO HIERARCHICAL DISTRIBUTED COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Authors:

#### Mikhail Kurnosov and Viktor Khoroshevsky

Abstract: In most cases modern distributed computer systems (computer clusters and MPP systems) have hierarchical organization and non-uniform communication channels between elementary machines (computer nodes, processors or processor cores). Execution time of parallel programs significantly depends on how they map to computer system (on what elementary machines parallel processes are assigned and what channels for inter-process communications are used). The general problem of mapping a parallel program into a distributed computer system is a well known NP-hard problem and several heuristics have been proposed to approximate its optimal solution. In this paper an algorithm for mapping parallel programs into hierarchical distributed computer systems based on task graph partitioning is proposed. The software tool for mapping MPI applications into multicore computer clusters is considered. The quality of this algorithm with the NAS Parallel Benchmarks is evaluated.

Paper Nr: 59
Title:

### A Secure Running Environment for Multiple Platforms

Authors:

#### Reijo Savola

Abstract: At present, the security critical operations of terminal devices are often being executed in the operating system, which may include security vulnerabilities due to implementation faults, for example. These vulnerabilities leave the system open to data leaks and attacks from viruses or other harmful programs. The European €-Confidential ITEA research project is developing device-independent, next-generation security solutions for software platforms. Critical operations are executed on a simple platform where the security operations are isolated in a separate module, which can be physically located in a terminal device or in a separate device such as a memory stick. This paper introduces a Secure Running Environment (SRE), in which the core security management of the platform is located. This contains sensible parts for the security of the operating system, middleware and applications. The security platform alone does not guarantee an adequate level of security. Security is a challenging and interdisciplinary field that demands holistic understanding, and validation of the realization of the security objectives and the solutions advancing them. The most common methods for security assurance are security analysis, security testing and security monitoring.

Paper Nr: 85
Title:

### Fountain Codes for Reliable Data Transmission in Low Voltage Power-Line Networks

Authors:

#### Juan P. Muñoz-Gea, Pedro J. Piñero-Escuer, Josemaría Malgosa-sanahuja, Pilar Manzanares-Lopez and Juan Carlos Sánchez-aarnoutse

Abstract: Home appliances are becoming information devices which can be networked to exchange information. No-new-wires networks are the most promising candidate networking technologies to provide both residential and Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) networking services. Among them, broadband communication over power line networks has attracted much interest in academy and industry recently. The HomePlug Powerline Alliance has developed a new specification for in-home networking called HomePlug AV. The HomePlug AV MAC layer provides a connectionless, prioritized contention service based on CSMA/CA to support best-effort applications. When there are connections competing for the channel utilization, UDP connections lose a big amount of packets. In addition, the bidirectional nature of TCP protocol may not be the adequate transmission mechanism in a half-duplex channel. In this scenario, the use of Fountain codes could be a good alternative to UDP and TCP to transmit reliable data. Online Codes are a free-software Fountain codes version. In this work, it is evaluated the feasibility to use Online Codes for binary data transmission in a low-voltage PLC network.

Paper Nr: 134
Title:

### SERVICE ORIENTED P2P NETWORKS FOR DIGITAL LIBRARIES, BASED ON JXTA

Authors:

#### Marco Pereira, Marco Fernands, Joaquim Arnaldo Martins and Joaquim Sousa Pinto

Abstract: Digital libraries tend to be based on centralised models. This centralised approach has both advantages and drawbacks. Regarding the drawbacks we notice that the central server used is a single point of failure that can effectively render a digital library unusable if it fails. In this kind of approach we are also ignoring potential resources that are available in other computers on the network. This paper describes a peer-to-peer network architecture based on JXTA and on SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) that can be used as a support infrastructure for a digital library.

Paper Nr: 139
Title:

### How to Deal with Replication and Recovery in a Distributed File Server.

Authors:

#### Itziar Arrieta-Salinas, José Ramón Juárez-Rodríguez, José E. Armendáriz-Iñigo and Jose R. Gonzalez de Mendivil

Abstract: Data replication techniques are widely used for improving availability in software applications. Replicated systems have traditionally assumed the fail-stop model, which limits fault tolerance. For this reason, there is a strong motivation to adopt the crash-recovery model, in which replicas can dynamically leave and join the system. With the aim to point out some key issues that must be considered when dealing with replication and recovery, we have implemented a replicated ﬁle server that satisﬁes the crash-recovery model, making use of a Group Communication System. According to our experiments, the most interesting results are that the type of replication and the number of replicas must be carefully determined, specially in update intensive scenarios; and, the variable overhead imposed by the recovery protocol to the system. From the latter, it would be convenient to adjust the desired trade-off between recovery time and system throughput in terms of the service state size and the number of missed operations.

Paper Nr: 158
Title:

### HYBRID AGENT & COMPONENT-BASED MANAGEMENT OF BACKCHANNELS

Authors:

#### Rem Collier, Gregory O'Hare, David Lillis and Mauro Dragone

Abstract: This paper describes the use of the SoSAA software framework to implement the hybrid management of communication channels (backchannels) across a distributed software system. SoSAA is a new integrated architectural solution enabling context-aware, open and adaptive software while preserving system modu- larity and promoting the re-use of existing component-based and agent-oriented frameworks and associated methodologies. In particular, we show how SoSAA can be used to orchestrate the adoption of network adapter components to bind functional components that are distributed across different component contexts. Both the performance of the different computational nodes involved and the efﬁciencies and faults in the underlying transport layers are taken into account when deciding which transport mechanisms to use.

Paper Nr: 178
Title:

### Functionality Recomposition for Self-Healing

Authors:

#### Josu Martinez and Simon Dobson

Abstract: Autonomic computing aims to provide self-management and adaptation in the implementation of complex (large, heterogeneous, distributed) systems over time. Such adaptations must be stable, in the sense of maintaining the system's high-level goals across environmental changes, which may lead to functionality loss. In this paper we present FReSH, a decentralised component-based framework which main objective is to self-heal the operation of complex systems in the face of behavioural disruptions. FReSH deals with formally specified components that provide a single piece of functionality. The reusable and shareable nature of these building blocks makes them eligible for dynamically recomposing the functionality provided by any failing component of the system without human intervention. FReSH supports the construction of more flexible, adaptive and robust software structures suitable to cope with the environmental changes of complex systems.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

### PRIVACY-AWARE DATA PROVIDING WEB SERVICES COMPOSITION

Authors:

#### Amin Cherbal, Djamal Benslimane and Mahmoud Barhamgi

Abstract: Web services are increasingly used to promote data sharing in collaborative environments such as eBusiness, eHealth, eEnterprise, etc. They facilitate data integration and interoperability across autonomous independent information systems in the collaboration environments. Many mediation solutions were proposed for data integration using Web services. Unfortunately privacy aspects were not addressed in these solutions. In this paper, we proposed a framework for privacy-preserving data integration based on Web services. Our proposal is a centralized access control mechanism allowing for the specification and enforcement of privacy rules in Web services composition based on domain ontologies.

Paper Nr: 54
Title:

### A Security Metrics Development Method based on Requirement Decomposition

Authors:

#### Reijo Savola

Abstract: Systematically and carefully designed information security metrics can be used to provide evidence of the security solutions of the system under development. The lack of appropriate security solutions in software-intensive systems might have serious consequences for businesses and the stakeholders. We investigate holistic development of security metrics based on security requirement decomposition and ontologies. The high-level security requirements are expressed in terms of lower-level measurable components applying a decomposition approach. Security requirement analysis of a distributed messaging system is used as an example.

Paper Nr: 101
Title:

### ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF A RECOMMENDER SYSTEM WITH AGENTS

Authors:

#### Javier Portillo, Aurora Vizcaino, Juan Pablo Soto and Mario Piattini

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide a guideline for novel multi-agent systems developers in order to assist them in the development of this kind of systems. Papers frequently focus on describing how systems work, but seldom describe the different steps carried out to attain the final product. We shall attempt to show how the usage of a methodology facilitates the analysis, design and implementation phases, along with how the INGENIAS methodology has helped us to systematically construct a recommender system.

Paper Nr: 150
Title:

### Building complex systems on top of Web 2.0

Authors:

#### Pavel Drasil and Tomas Pitner

Abstract: Service-oriented architectures are a predominant architectural style in current enterprise software systems while Web 2.0 is a predominant paradigm in current web environment. Even if the ideological and technological bases of the two are quite different, many similarities can be found in their view of services as basic building blocks and service integration as a way of creating complex applications. The “Web 2.0 Platform”, introduced in this paper, bridges these two words by applying enterprise-oriented technologies in Web 2.0 service integration. Proposed architecture allows creating enterprise-strength, industry-standard-based applications employing the functionality of legacy Web 2.0 services. We show its advantages on a case study where we construct an integrated learning environment based on Web 2.0 services and supporting the learning patterns required by Inclusive Universal Access in learning.

Paper Nr: 169
Title:

### On the Study of Dynamic and Adaptive Dependable Distributed Systems: Position Paper

Authors:

#### José E. Armendáriz-Iñigo, Francesc D. Muñoz-Escoí, Jose R. Gonzalez de Mendivil, José Ramón Juárez-Rodríguez and Rubén de Juan-Marín

Abstract: Due to the usage of MANETs and some kinds of collaborative applications (P2P), current distributed systems are becoming increasingly dynamic; i.e., it is difficult to manage membership information and to forecast the accessibility of each system node. Moreover, dependable applications for static distributed systems also need to provide good adaptability levels (to different request arrival rates, usage patterns, classes of requests,...) and good scalability; a case to study is the cloud computing paradigm. Development of dependable applications in dynamic and adaptive systems is not trivial, since both dynamism and adaptability may compromise algorithm liveness or may complicate the design of such algorithms, specially those best suited for static systems. Strategies for building adaptable and scalable dependable services (based on "cloud systems") will be surveyed and improved. Moreover, an efficient support for dependable applications in dynamic systems will be provided, combining three different approaches: relaxed consistency models, interconnection protocols (for supporting both consistency and multicasting) and reconciliation strategies. Last but not least, also the usage and support for integrity constraints in replicated systems will be analyzed and improved for dynamic systems.

## Area 4 - Data Management

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 20
Title:

### Unordered Tree Matching and Tree Pattern Queries in XML Databases

Authors:

#### Yangjun Chen

Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we discuss an efficient algorithm for tree mapping problem in XML databases. Given a target tree T and a pattern tree Q, the algorithm can find all the embeddings of Q in T in O(|D||Q|) time, where D is a largest data stream associated with a node of Q. The algorithm is an index-based strategy with XB-trees constructed over data streams to speed up disk access. Experiments show that our method is promising.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

### CHOOSING THE ”BEST” SORTING ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Authors:

#### Hagen Höpfner, Christian Bunse, Hagen Höpfner, Suman Roychoudhury and Essam Mansour

Abstract: Reducing the energy consumption of mobile systems in order to prolong their operating time has been an active research topic for quite some time. Such systems are typically battery powered and thus, their uptime depends on the energy consumption of the used hardware and software components. Novel strategies that allow software systems to dynamically adapt themselves at runtime can be effectively used to reduce energy consumption. The focus of this paper is based on a case study that uses an energy management component that can dynamically choose the “best” sorting algorithm during a multi-party mobile communication. The results indicate that Insertionsort is the most optimal sorting algorithm when in comes to saving energy.

Paper Nr: 165
Title:

### Modeling and Monitoring the Quality of Data by Integrity Constraints and Integrity Checking

Authors:

#### Hendrik Decker

Abstract: Positive and negative characteristics for describing the quality of data, such as trustworthyness, soundness, riskiness, uncertainty and other semantic properties, can be modeled and monitored by conventional database integrity technology. We present and discuss the main ideas of modeling and monitoring data quality by integrity constraints and inconsistency-tolerant integrity checking, and illustrate them by an extended example.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 40
Title:

### MEASURING DATA QUALITY IN VORTALS

Authors:

#### Angélica Caro, Mª Ángeles Moraga, Carmen Moraga de la Rubia and Coral Calero

Abstract: Nowadays, Web portals serve as an important means to access information. It is common for users to use information obtained from the web to carry out their daily tasks. These users need to ensure that this information suits their needs. PDQM (Portal Data Quality Model) is a model that assesses the quality of portal data. PDQM has been defined in such a way that every time that one wishes to evaluate a different portal context, a specific configuration of the model must be used. In an attempt to go beyond this limitation and with the idea of making PDQM a more generic model, we have adjusted it to be applied to vortals, the largest category of portals. This article describes the first phase of adapting PDQM.

Paper Nr: 117
Title:

### PRINT-BASED INTERACTION INTERFACES FOR MULTILINGUAL MULTIMEDIA AND SIGN LANGUAGE ELECTRONIC RESOURCE INTEGRATION

Authors:

#### Kamen Kanev, Reneta Barneva, Valentin Brimkov and Dimitrina Kaneva

Abstract: In this work we outline previous implementations of multilingual multimedia dictionaries and discuss possibilities for adding new functionalities and expanding their coverage. Independently developed sign language dictionary resources are further explored and considered for inclusion in an integrated multilingual multimedia dictionary with video support. Print based interfaces for direct access to digital content are implemented and a novel concept for dynamic linking to printed documents based on mapping of printed and digital content is proposed. Printed texts in different languages and language independent images are used as interface components for addressing diverse multimedia content including sign language and lip reading multimedia resources.

Paper Nr: 123
Title:

### A Distortion Free Watermark Framework for Relational Databases

Authors:

#### Agostino Cortesi and Agostino Cortesi

Abstract: In this paper we introduce a distortion free invisible watermarking technique for relational databases. The main idea is to build the watermark after partitioning tuples with actual attribute values. Then, we build hash functions on top of this grouping and get a watermark as a permutation of tuples in the original table. As the ordering of tuples does not affect the original database, this technique is distortion free. Our contribution can be seen as an application to relational databases of software watermarking ideas developed within the Abstract Interpretation framework.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

### MONTE CARLO PROJECTIVE CLUSTERING OF TEXTS

Authors:

#### Jaroslav Pokorny and Vladimír Ljubopytnov

Abstract: In this paper we propose a new, improved version of a Monte Carlo projective clustering algorithm – DOC. DOC was designed for general vector data and we extend it to deal with variable dimension significance and use it in web search snippets clustering. We discuss advantages and weaknesses of our approach with respect to known algorithms.

Paper Nr: 92
Title:

### ON ANALYZING THE DATABASE PERFORMANCE FOR DIFFERENT CLASSES OF XML DOCUMENTS BASED ON THE USED STORAGE APPROACH

Authors:

Abstract: With the increasing popularity of XML data also the need for permanent XML document storage grows. As of today there exist number of different XML storage alternatives ranging from XML enabled relational database systems over a new class of hybrid database systems providing native storage for XML and relational data to pure native XML systems. This paper examines how these different storage approaches perform in respect to the different classes of XML data by devising a new benchmark HYBE with special consideration to certain features of hybrid database systems. First results indicate that hybrid database systems can deliver performance which is (almost) equivalent to native XML database systems making them the optimal choice for small to mid-size companies with the need for both XML and relational data storage.

Paper Nr: 120
Title:

### External Tool Integration with Proxy Filters in a Data Mining Application Framework

Authors:

#### Lauri Tuovinen, Perttu Laurinen and Juha Röning

Abstract: An important phase in the development of a data mining application is algorithm selection: for any given data mining task there is likely to be a range of different model types available, as well as a number of different methods for constructing the models. Choosing the one that best accomplishes the task is not trivial and generally involves trials and comparisons of different configurations. It is often convenient to perform the trials on a platform other than the ultimate implementation technology of the application; for example, the application may be implemented in a general-purpose programming language such as C++ while model prototyping is carried out in a scientific computing environment such as MATLAB. Smart Archive, a data mining application framework for Java and C++, allows MATLAB and other external tools to be integrated into applications via special proxies known as gateway filters. To the framework the gateway filters appear no different from algorithms implemented on the framework platform, so it is possible to build a full application prototype early on and then, once the algorithms to be used have been selected, to turn the prototype into a deployable application simply by replacing proxies with natively implemented filters. Thus the framework comprehensively supports the various steps of application programming, from algorithm design and prototype building to final implementation.

Paper Nr: 174
Title:

### DATA CACHING ON MOBILE DEVICES - The Experimental MyMIDP Caching Framework

Authors:

#### Essam Mansour, Hagen Höpfner, Sebastian Wendland and Essam Mansour

Abstract: Data caching is an appropriate technique for reducing wireless data transmissions in mobile information systems. The literature describes numerous caching approaches on a theoretical level. Semantic, preemptive, or context aware caches are discussed but not implemented for mobile devices even evaluated in real applications. The problem here is the complexity of data management tools. Software for mobile devices must consider the limited footprint of the used hardware as well as the restrictions of the application programming interfaces. In this poster paper we describe the caching framework of our MyMIDP database driver. The framework provides interfaces that allow to implement the caching approaches discussed in the literature and to test them on MIDP 2.0 enabled mobile devices in a MySQL environment. Hence, we provide researchers with a necessary tool for proofing the efficiency of their caches.

## Area 5 - Knowledge-Based Systems

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 27
Title:

### ASAP: A LIGHTWEIGHT TOOL FOR AGILE PLANNING

Authors:

#### Rasmus R. Petersen and Uffe K. Wiil

Abstract: Supporting planning tasks of agile teams is a challenge. In this paper, we present a lightweight planning tool. ASAP is inspired by concepts and principles from spatial hypertext, which support information analysis tasks. ASAP runs on a large interactive vertical display on which electronic task cards can be organized into iterations and releases using card hierarchies and separators (a novel visual concept). Several views of the evolving plan are automatically generated to assist the agile team with overviews of tasks, estimates, and assignments. Views are instantly updated to reflect changes to the plan.

Paper Nr: 49
Title:

### RECOGNITION AND GENERATION OF EMOTIONS IN AFFECTIVE E-LEARNING

Authors:

#### Efthimios Alepis, Katerina Kabassi and Maria Virvou

Abstract: This paper presents two theories namely SAW and OCC that have been incorporated into an educational system in order to provide an affective e-learning environment. Simple additive Weighting (SAW) is used for the recognition of possible emotional states of the users, while the cognitive theory of emotions (OCC) is used for the generation of emotional states by educational agents. The system bases its inferences about users’ emotions on user input evidence from the keyboard and the microphone, as modalities of human-computer interaction. The actual combination of evidence from these two modes of interaction has been performed based on an innovative inference mechanism for emotions and a multi-attribute decision making theory. Furthermore, user action evidence from the two modes of interaction also activates the cognitive mechanisms of the underlying OCC model that propose emotional behavioural tactics for the educational agents for pedagogic purposes

Paper Nr: 188
Title:

### Decision Support Systems in Ontology-Based Construction of Web Directories

Authors:

#### Marko Horvat, Gordan Gledec and Nikola Bogunović

Abstract: The paper proposes an ontology-based mechanism for fully automated development of a Web directory’s structure using the Semantic web as an underlying and integrating principle. Maintenance of a Web directory is a time and resource wise consuming task. Moreover, there is always a realistic risk of the structure becoming unbalanced, uneven and difficult to use to all except for a few users proficient in a particular Web directory. By using ontologies to describe semantics of Web resources and Web directory’s categories, and through the use of ontology mapping, it is possible to construct algorithms that can build or rearrange the structure of a Web directory. Such applications are immediately helpful but also can be useful in the more general problem of ontology sorting.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 29
Title:

### GEOWIN, A System for Creative Pattern Generation Based on Rules

Authors:

#### Joaquim Reis

Abstract: This paper describes work done in developing a computational system based on rules for generating visual patterns. Rules are used in a shape grammar context to represent styles to use in visual composition when generating new patterns or shapes, based on patterns or shapes previously added to a composition. This work is a continuation of previous work done, and published, which addresses the construction of a system employing shape grammar rules grouped to emulate styles of visual composition, in order to support the behavior of different artistic creative intelligent agents with different styles. The main idea is to have a multi-agent system that, by making use of the shape grammar formalism, will be able to support creative visual composition synthesis activities, with each intervening agent giving its creative contribution through a style of its own. Another intention is to explore the system as a tool to realize, test and study creativity criteria and creative processes.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

### USER MODELLING SERVER FOR MOBILE AND ELECTRONIC SHOPPING

Authors:

#### Anastasios Savvopoulos and Maria Virvou

Abstract: Today product recommending applications use many techniques in order to achieve personalization. However, there is a difficulty to apply the same architecture and techniques that have been used on one system to a totally different one. In this paper we propose a server that can be used to achieve personalization to a product recommending system. The main advantage of this server is that works both for e-commerce and mobile commerce. In this paper we present two case studies that we incorporated the user modelling server, an e-shop and a mobile shop. The case studies prove that the same user modelling server works efficiently on both media.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

### Using Wordnets and Ontologies for Text-Meaning Assignment

Authors:

#### Ales Horak and Adam Rambousek

Abstract: The vision of Semantic Web introduced ontologies as the main unifying tool for management of the knowledge and semantic structure of text documents. However, linking the real text documents with the ontologies (of various kinds and various degree of complexity) is still a matter of current research in knowledge representation projects. In this paper, we are presenting the work results of the KYOTO project database implementation. The goal of the project is to provide a complex system for automatic processing of documents in order to extract known facts, link them with shared ontology and use this knowledge for Question Answering about the document topic. We give details about the design and implementation of the KYOTO database, which interlinks national WordNet semantic networks with the general SUMO ontology to offer the basis of the future shared ontology.

Paper Nr: 90
Title:

### TOWARDS PROBLEM SOLVING METHODS IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

Authors:

#### Paul Bogg, Ghassan Beydoun and Graham Low

Abstract: Problem Solving Methods (PSM) are abstract structures that describe specific reasoning processes employed to solve a set of similar problems and have proved very effective to enhancing reuse and extensibility in knowledge-based systems. We envisage that off-the-shelf PSMs can similarly assist in the development of agent-oriented solutions using Multi-Agent Systems (MAS). One of the main challenges towards the effective use of PSM in MAS is that current approaches to formulating PSMs do not adequately address the complexity of problems to which agent-oriented systems are suited to solve. Towards solving these, the paper focuses on providing an approach to guide developers to adequately formulate PSMs for complex problem-solving where interactions are involved, such as in negotiation and cooperation.

Paper Nr: 97
Title:

### A NEW HYBRID GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR MAXIMUM INDEPENDENT SET PROBLEM

Authors:

#### Saeed Mehrabi, Abbas Mehrabi and Ali D. Mehrabi

Abstract: In recent years, Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have been frequently used for many search and optimization problems. In this paper, we use genetic algorithms for solving the NP-complete maximum independent set problem (MISP). We have developed a new heuristic independent crossover (HIX) especially for MISP, introducing a new hybrid genetic algorithm (MIS-HGA). We use a repair operator to ensure that our offsprings are valid after mutation. We compare our algorithm, MIS-GA, with an efficient existing algorithm called GENEsYs. Also, a variety of benchmarks are used to test our algorithm. As the experimental results show: 1) our algorithm outperforms GENEsYs, and, 2) applying HIX to genetic algorithms with an appropriate mutation rate, gives far better performance than the classical crossover operators.

Paper Nr: 109
Title:

### Kromos: ontology based information management for ICT societies.

Authors:

#### Antonio Oliveri, Patrizia Ribino, Salvatore Gaglio, Giuseppe Lo Re, Tonio Portuesi, Aurelio L. Corte and Francesco Trapani

Abstract: Over the last few years, several projects for the development of innovative systems capable of collecting and sharing information have been carried out, following the increasing companies' interest on a correct knowledge management. ICT companies' managers have realized that knowledge and its management, more than the mere data, constitute fundamental part of their activities. This paper proposes a Knowledge Management System whose main feature is an underlying ontological knowledge representation. This data representation allows the specialization of the reasoning capabilities and the provision of ad hoc behaviors. The system has been designed for the management of projects and processes and has been tested using data coming from projects and processes typical of government ICT companies, providing a Document Management System and an Expert System to share documents and to plan how to best use firms' knowledge.

Paper Nr: 126
Title:

### A Knowledge Base for Justified Information Security Decision-Making

Authors:

#### John Mace, Daria Stepanova, Simon Parkin and Aad van Moorsel

Abstract: The majority of modern-day companies store commercially sensitive and valuable information assets in digital form. It is essential for the Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) within an organisation to ensure that such information is adequately protected. External standards exist to advise CISOs on how to secure information, but these are essentially "one-size-fits-all". Furthermore they do not consider the human-behavioural aspects that determine the impact of security controls upon employees, or how security controls can be best deployed to manage insecure employee behaviour. CISOs require more information than they are currently provided with to justify their information security management decisions. Here we present a knowledge base and accompanying user interface. The knowledge base represents key structural components of the ISO27002 security standard, formally relating them to one another. This empowers CISOs to understand how different security measures impact upon each other. It also considers how human-behavioural factors can be associated with these concepts. The accompanying user interface provides a means to present formalised information security concepts to CISOs. This paper describes the development of the knowledge base and user interface, highlighting and discussing key challenges and how they were resolved.

Paper Nr: 173
Title:

### Ontology based Knowledge Modeling for the Two-Step Personalized Services in Next Generation Networks

Authors:

#### Aekyung Moon

Abstract: We propose ontology based knowledge modelling (OKM) that can support to provide the two-step personalized services for the end users using network knowledge. The two-step personalization services are consisted of service recommendation step and contents recommendation step. To achieve this, OKM is consisted of service category preference model and contents preference model. The former is to recommend a weighted list of useful service categories. The latter is to set up a weighted list of specific contents according to the service selected by a user. Moreover, we propose knowledge management platform that can support to provide two-step personalized services for the end users by means of evolving network knowledge.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

### Simplified Rules Base Obtained with Logic Minimization Method for Diagnosis of Measles Disease Realized with Expert Systems

Authors:

#### Fatih Basciftci and Murat Hacımurtazaoğlu

Abstract: This paper describes a knowledge based system employing certain expert system rules to detect kind of measles disease. A rule based expert system is designed for early diagnosis of measles disease. Simplified rules were used to determine the base of rules. In order to simplify the rules, Boolean simplifying method was used. Front diagnosis plays an effective role in determining and therapy. Front diagnosis gives an easy position to the doctors during the therapy and diagnosis. With an expert system that will be applied as an example before the patient does not come to the doctor, a test will be applied and front information will be taken from the patient. In this study, a logic system was developed to diagnose the measles and diseases showing symptoms similar to the measles.

Paper Nr: 37
Title:

### Building of Human Activity Correlation Map from Weblogs

Authors:

#### Nguyen M. The, Takahiro Kawamura, Akihiko Ohsuga and Takahiro Kawamura

Abstract: Recently, context-dependent recommendation services for smart phone users have been publicly available, which provide any of useful information related to the users' current situation. These services are based on a technique called Human Activity Mining. However, a method collecting every event all the day, which is seen in some projects on ubiquitous computing has some problems. Therefore, this paper proposes an approach to build human Activity Correlation Map using ontologies from users' behavior logs on weblogs. Then, we show its efficiency through a preliminary evaluation.

Paper Nr: 86
Title:

### Comparing Performance Results Using NEWFM and Statistical Method

Authors:

#### Sang-Hong Lee

Abstract: This paper proposes stock forecasting using a principal component analysis (PCA) and a non-overlap area distribution measurement method based on a neural network with weighted fuzzy membership functions (NEWFM). The non-overlap area distribution measurement method selects the minimized four numbers of input features with the highest performance result from twelve initial input features by removing the worst input features one by one. PCA is a vector space transform often used for reducing multidimensional data sets to lower dimensions for analysis. Seven dimensional data sets with the highest performance result are extracted by PCA. The highest performance results in a non-overlap area distribution measurement method and PCA are 58.35% as the same results.

Paper Nr: 149
Title:

### Authoring tools for KOC - A knowledge repository to teach building construction

Authors:

#### German Bravo, David Cifuentes and Rafael Villazón

Abstract: Composition and authoring tools constitute fundamental instruments to facilitate the generation of new knowledge to experts in a domain, because it allows the construction of high level knowledge objects from other already existing knowledge objects. Content generators within the KOC system, a knowledge repository for construction objects based on the ArCo ontology (which covers the technical area of buildings’ construction in Architecture), can benefit significantly from this kind of tools, because they allow them to generate new complex knowledge objects, by taking advantage of the structure defined by ArCo. This paper presents three composition tools for KOC: a complex objects composer issued from structured searches, a constructive processes composer and a case study composer, all of them aiming the improvement of learning quality in the building construction technical area at the architecture and engineering schools.